8. Who were some of the great Muslim scientists and thinkers?

Ibn Hayyan (Geber, 738-813) - known as the father of chemistry.

Al-Khawarizmi (Algorizm, 750-850) - invented algebra and was instrumental in the development of trigonometry, calculus, and the use of algorithms.

Ibn Firnas (died 888) - developed the mechanics of flight before DaVinci; he also built a planetarium.

Al-Razi (Rhazes, 864-930) - a great physician who identified and treated smallpox.

Al-Zahravi (Albucasis, 936-1013) - recognized as the father of modern surgery.

Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 981-1037) - a very well known physician, authored the "Cannon of Medicine" and the "Book of Healing." His writings were considered the authority of medicine for over five hundred years.

Al-Idrisi (Dreses, 1099-1166) - made the first world maps that clearly showed North, Central, and South America .

Ibn Rushd (Averroes, 1128-1198) - a great philosopher, astronomer, and physician.

Ibn Batuta (1304-1378) - an avid world traveler, writer and geographer; he visited most of then-known world from Spain , to parts of Africa , to China .